Depth-Resolved Characterization of Perylenediimide Side-Chain Polymer Thin Film Structure Using Grazing-Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray Diffraction with Tender X-rays

Kazutaka Kamitani, Ayumi Hamada, Kazutoshi Yokomachi, Kakeru Ninomiya, Kiyu Uno, Masaru Mukai, Yuko Konishi, Noboru Ohta, Maiko Nishibori, Tomoyasu Hirai, Atsushi Takahara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


Polymers with a perylenediimide (PDI) side chain (PAc12PDI) consist of two kinds of crystalline structures with various types of orientations in a thin film. Understanding the population of the microcrystalline structure and its orientation along the thickness is strongly desired. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction (GIWAXD) measurements with hard X-rays, which are generally chosen as λ = 0.1 nm, are a powerful tool to evaluate the molecular aggregation structure in thin films. A depth-resolved analysis for the outermost surface of the polymeric materials using conventional GIWAXD measurements, however, has limitations on depth resolution because the X-ray penetration depth dramatically increases above the critical angle. Meanwhile, tender X-rays (λ = 0.5 nm) have the potential advantage that the penetration depth gradually increases above the critical angle, leading to precise characterization for the population of crystallite distribution along the thickness. The population of the microcrystalline states in the PAc12PDI thin film was precisely characterized utilizing GIWAXD measurements using tender X-rays. The outermost surface of the PAc12PDI thin film is occupied by a monoclinic lattice with a = 2.38 nm, b = 0.74 nm, c = 5.98 nm, and β = 108.13°, while maintaining the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. Additionally, the presence of solid substrate controls the formation of the crystallite with unidirectional orientation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8516-8521
Number of pages6
Issue number29
Publication statusPublished - Jul 24 2018


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Spectroscopy
  • Electrochemistry

Cite this