Background/Aims: Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increased in patients with CD. In Japan, anorectal cancer accounted for >60% of CRCs associated with CD. These anorectal cancers are typically diagnosed in advanced stages, because a surveillance protocol remains to be established. This study aimed to assess various biopsy methods for detecting CRC. Methods: This study included 72 patients (113 examinations) with CD who underwent cancer surveillance between August 2008 and October 2015. Surveillances were performed with a core needle biopsy in perianal regions (54 cases), endoscopic biopsy (90 cases), and excisional biopsy (34 cases). When it was difficult to perform colonoscopy in an outpatient setting, due to perianal pain or stricture, we employed examinations under anesthesia for surveillance. Results: The total CRC detection rate was 6.19% (7 examinations). CRC detection rates were 1.85% (1 case) with core needle biopsy, 5.56% (5 cases) with endoscopic biopsy, and 5.88% (2 cases) with excisional biopsy. Conclusions: We showed that it was important to employ various biopsy methods in cancer surveillance to detect CRC among patients with CD.
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