Detection of smoldering fire using tin oxide gas sensors

Tsubasa Higashino, Ayako Sawada, Takashi Oyabu, Yoshinori Takei, Hidehito Nanto, Kiyoshi Toko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Detecting technique of smoldering fire was examined using tin oxide gas sensors. Eight sensors were installed in a room. They were same type. Four kinds of materials were adopted as a fire-source material. The materials were cotton cloth, wallpaper, curtain cloth and woodchip, which were main smoldering fire-source materials in an indoor environment. The sensor outputs to gases evolved upon the smoldering fire of the materials were measured. The differential characteristic of the output was derived to analyze. As for the results, it became obvious that the sensor locating at higher position had a higher sensitivity and it could sense the fire instantaneously. It is thought that the generated gases rise up directly toward the ceiling and reflect downward. A small type of electric cooking stove was used as a fire-source. The surface temperature of the stove plate arrived at 340 °C. A bar was adopted to set the sensors freely. In this experiment, three bars were adopted and the heights of the sensor position were 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm from the floor. It is effective to locate the sensor at higher position in detecting a smoldering fire. The sensor characteristics were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The system could discriminate source materials among wallpaper, woodchip and curtain for smoldering fire by utilizing the result of PCA. But, the smoldering fire of cotton cloth could not be distinguished from that of curtain by this system. Each fire could be identified in four minutes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-358+4
JournalIEEJ Transactions on Sensors and Micromachines
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Detection of smoldering fire using tin oxide gas sensors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this