Cardiorenal syndrome type 1 causes acute kidney injury but is poorly understood; animal models and diagnostic aids are lacking. Robust noninvasive measurements of glomerular filtration rate are required for injury models and clinical use. Several have been described but are untested in translational models and suffer from biologic interference. We developed a mouse model of cardiorenal syndrome and tested the novel near-infrared fluorophore ZW800-1 to assess renal and cardiac function. We performed murine cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation followed by transthoracic echocardiography, 2 and 24 h later. Transcutaneous fluorescence of ZW800-1 bolus dispersion and clearance was assessed with whole animal imaging and compared with glomerular filtration rate (GFR; inulin clearance), tubular cell death (using unbiased stereology), and serum creatinine. Correlation, Bland-Altman, and polar analyses were used to compare GFR with ZW800-1 clearance. Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation caused reversible cardiac failure, halving fractional shortening of the left ventricle (n = 12, P = 0.03). Acute kidney injury resulted with near-zero GFR and sixfold increase in serum creatinine 24 h later (n = 16, P < 0.01). ZW800-1 biodistribution and clearance were exclusively renal. ZW800-1 t1/2 and clearance correlated with GFR (r = 0.92, n = 31, P < 0.0001). ZW800-1 fluorescence was reduced in cardiac arrest, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation-treated mice compared with sham animals 810 s after injection (P < 0.01) and bolus time-dispersion curves demonstrated that ZW800-1 fluorescence dispersion correlated with left ventricular function (r = 0.74, P < 0.01). Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation lead to experimental cardiorenal syndrome type 1. ZW800-1, a small near-infrared fluorophore being developed for clinical intraoperative imaging, is favorable for evaluating cardiac and renal function noninvasively.
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