Interconnected set porous-calcium phosphate cement (set porous-CPC), which has fully interconnected pores could be an ideal bone substitute. In this study, set porous- CPC consisting of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) beads and acidic calcium phosphate solution was developed and its basic setting reaction was studied. When α-TCP beads were exposed to the acidic calcium phosphate solution, brushite (CaHPO4 ·2H2O) was formed on the surface of the α-TCP beads. The formed brushite crystals interlocked with each other, resulting in a setting reaction of α-TCP microspheres within 10 min at 37°C. As a result of this setting reaction, a fullyinterconnected calcium phosphate macroporous structure was obtained. The set porous-CPC were immersed into simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37oC for different immersion time, The result clearly showed that brushite surface layer transformed to apatite layer after 3 days immersion into SBF solution by dissolution-precipitation reaction. Since apatite layer show excellent tissue response, the set porous-CPC would be a promising biomaterial used as artificial bone substitutes, and as the scaffold for tissue engineering.