Employee voice is an important organizational behavior that affects work group performance, and many studies have explored its mechanism; nonetheless, the existing literature narrowly defines the construct and overlooks a variety of strategic approaches employees take as they engage in voice. Based on this problematization, the current research has developed and validated a scale of employee voice strategy through four studies in Japan (total N = 1,156). Employee voice strategy is defined as a set of direct and indirect communicative approaches that organizational members utilize to share ideas with intentions to exert constructive influence to their work group. Studies 1 and 2 analyzed interview narratives to develop an initial typology, which was refined in Study 3 into a six-factor scale. Study 4 replicated it through confirmatory factor analyses. Construct validity of the scale was also examined by testing the strategy factors' nomological network-as expected, proactive personality was positively associated with assertive strategies, while relationship maintenance goal orientation was linked to conciliatory, nonconfrontational strategies; negative emotion display showed negative associations with voice strategy use in general. These findings were discussed vis-à-vis culturally inclusive human resource management practices, as well as theoretical exploration of the employee voice phenomena from process-centered perspectives.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Applied Psychology
- Strategy and Management
- Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
- Management of Technology and Innovation