Development and validation of the 25-item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25)

Alan R. Teo, Jason I. Chen, Hiroaki Kubo, Ryoko Katsuki, Mina Sato-Kasai, Norihiro Shimokawa, Kohei Hayakawa, Wakako Umene-Nakano, James E. Aikens, Shigenobu Kanba, Takahiro A. Kato

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7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aim: Hikikomori, a form of severe social withdrawal, is an emerging issue in mental health, for which validated measurement tools are lacking. The object was to develop a self-report scale of hikikomori, and assess its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Methods: A sample of 399 participants from clinical and community settings completed measures. Psychometric properties were assessed with factor analysis; diagnostic accuracy was compared against a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Results: The Hikikomori Questionnaire contained 25 items across three subscales representing socialization, isolation, and emotional support. Internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent validity were all satisfactory. The area under the curve was 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.80–0.92). A cut-off score of 42 (out of 100) was associated with a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 61%, and positive predictive value of 17%. Conclusion: The 25-item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25) possesses robust psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy in an initial sample of Japanese adults. Additional research on its psychometric properties and ability to support clinical assessment of hikikomori is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)780-788
Number of pages9
JournalPsychiatry and clinical neurosciences
Volume72
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2018

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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