Development of a 3-D measurement and evaluation system for facial forms with a liquid crystal range finder

Tomohiro Yamada, Toshio Sugahara, Yoshihide Mori, Katsuhiro Minami, Masayosi Sakuda

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17 Citations (Scopus)


A 3-D measurement and evaluation system for facial forms was developed with a liquid crystal range finder (LCRF). Its mechanical resolution was ~0.4 mm, and it was capable of measuring > 30000 points from the entire facial surface in one second. An original program was developed to identify facial landmarks using not only linear distances, but also 3D-curvatures and discriminant analysis of the RGB data. With this program, the 3-D identification of anthropometrical points became possible with high accuracy. Due to the rapidity of the measuring apparatus and morphological evaluation system, it became possible to analyze the facial forms of infants such as cleft lip patients three dimensionally, without any sedation. Therefore, 97 normal infants (mean: 4.3 months of age) were measured and analyzed with this system. A cleft lip infant was measured and compared with the normal infants before and after cleft lip surgery, and the improved points and remaining problems were clearly recognized.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-173
Number of pages15
JournalComputer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 1999
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Informatics

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