A 51-year-old man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Although he had HLA-DRB1 0405 and a positive rheumatoid factor, he was unlikely to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) according to diagnostic criteria. However, the patient developed RA 40 days after transplantation. Our experience suggests that the systemic autoimmune disease, RA, may occur in patients with predisposing factors after autologous PBSCT.
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