Diamond nucleation density as a function of ion-bombardment energy in electron cyclotron resonance plasma

Yutaka Kouzuma, Kungen Teii, Kiichiro Uchino, Katsunori Muraoka

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Abstract

A low-pressure study on diamond nucleation on mirror-polished Si(100) wafers using defined ion-bombardment energy is presented. The substrate was negatively biased to several tens of V in an electron cyclotron resonance methane-hydrogen plasma at 1×10-3 Torr for nucleation, and then exposed to a typical hot-filament system at 40 Torr for subsequent growth. The nucleation density counted after the growth was enhanced up to ∼108 cm−2 for a narrow bias-voltage range of −20–−50 V in the initial nucleation treatment. The threshold and optimum ion energies for the nucleation enhancement were found to be 20–30 eV and around 50 eV, respectively, just above the threshold for shallow ion implantation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction for the deposits after the nucleation treatment revealed that diamond crystallites with sizes smaller than a few tens of nm were embedded in a matrix of amorphous carbon. The nucleation density as a function of ion energy was compared with the fractional increase in carbon sp−3 bonding caused by subplantation. The results confirm the nucleation pathway through the ion-induced densification beneath a surface, which is largely different from the conventional condensation of adsorbed species on a surface.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Volume68
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2003

Fingerprint

Diamond
Electron cyclotron resonance
Ion bombardment
electron cyclotron resonance
bombardment
Diamonds
Nucleation
diamonds
nucleation
Plasmas
ions
energy
Ions
thresholds
carbon
Amorphous carbon
Methane
hydrogen plasma
densification
Bias voltage

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

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title = "Diamond nucleation density as a function of ion-bombardment energy in electron cyclotron resonance plasma",
abstract = "A low-pressure study on diamond nucleation on mirror-polished Si(100) wafers using defined ion-bombardment energy is presented. The substrate was negatively biased to several tens of V in an electron cyclotron resonance methane-hydrogen plasma at 1×10-3 Torr for nucleation, and then exposed to a typical hot-filament system at 40 Torr for subsequent growth. The nucleation density counted after the growth was enhanced up to ∼108 cm−2 for a narrow bias-voltage range of −20–−50 V in the initial nucleation treatment. The threshold and optimum ion energies for the nucleation enhancement were found to be 20–30 eV and around 50 eV, respectively, just above the threshold for shallow ion implantation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction for the deposits after the nucleation treatment revealed that diamond crystallites with sizes smaller than a few tens of nm were embedded in a matrix of amorphous carbon. The nucleation density as a function of ion energy was compared with the fractional increase in carbon sp−3 bonding caused by subplantation. The results confirm the nucleation pathway through the ion-induced densification beneath a surface, which is largely different from the conventional condensation of adsorbed species on a surface.",
author = "Yutaka Kouzuma and Kungen Teii and Kiichiro Uchino and Katsunori Muraoka",
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T1 - Diamond nucleation density as a function of ion-bombardment energy in electron cyclotron resonance plasma

AU - Kouzuma, Yutaka

AU - Teii, Kungen

AU - Uchino, Kiichiro

AU - Muraoka, Katsunori

PY - 2003/8/1

Y1 - 2003/8/1

N2 - A low-pressure study on diamond nucleation on mirror-polished Si(100) wafers using defined ion-bombardment energy is presented. The substrate was negatively biased to several tens of V in an electron cyclotron resonance methane-hydrogen plasma at 1×10-3 Torr for nucleation, and then exposed to a typical hot-filament system at 40 Torr for subsequent growth. The nucleation density counted after the growth was enhanced up to ∼108 cm−2 for a narrow bias-voltage range of −20–−50 V in the initial nucleation treatment. The threshold and optimum ion energies for the nucleation enhancement were found to be 20–30 eV and around 50 eV, respectively, just above the threshold for shallow ion implantation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction for the deposits after the nucleation treatment revealed that diamond crystallites with sizes smaller than a few tens of nm were embedded in a matrix of amorphous carbon. The nucleation density as a function of ion energy was compared with the fractional increase in carbon sp−3 bonding caused by subplantation. The results confirm the nucleation pathway through the ion-induced densification beneath a surface, which is largely different from the conventional condensation of adsorbed species on a surface.

AB - A low-pressure study on diamond nucleation on mirror-polished Si(100) wafers using defined ion-bombardment energy is presented. The substrate was negatively biased to several tens of V in an electron cyclotron resonance methane-hydrogen plasma at 1×10-3 Torr for nucleation, and then exposed to a typical hot-filament system at 40 Torr for subsequent growth. The nucleation density counted after the growth was enhanced up to ∼108 cm−2 for a narrow bias-voltage range of −20–−50 V in the initial nucleation treatment. The threshold and optimum ion energies for the nucleation enhancement were found to be 20–30 eV and around 50 eV, respectively, just above the threshold for shallow ion implantation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction for the deposits after the nucleation treatment revealed that diamond crystallites with sizes smaller than a few tens of nm were embedded in a matrix of amorphous carbon. The nucleation density as a function of ion energy was compared with the fractional increase in carbon sp−3 bonding caused by subplantation. The results confirm the nucleation pathway through the ion-induced densification beneath a surface, which is largely different from the conventional condensation of adsorbed species on a surface.

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