Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used in the treatment of inflammation and pain. In many reports, NSAIDs have induced apoptosis in a variety of cell lines such as colon cancer cells. On the other hand, more recently a few reports have found that NSAIDs protect against apoptosis. Here we investigate endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress-induced apoptosis of neuronal cells. The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of NSAIDs, in particular diclofenac, on ER-stress-induced apoptosis of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Diclofenac significantly suppressed SH-SY5Y cell death induced by two types of ER-stress-inducing agents: thapsigargin, an inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and tunicamycin, a glycosylation blocker. Other NSAIDs, such as indomethacin, ibuprofen, aspirin, and ketoprofen, also suppressed ER-stress-induced SH-SY5Y cell death. The dose-dependent anti-apoptotic effect of diclofenac did not correlate with the reduction of prostaglandin release. Administration of prostaglandin E2, which was a primary product of arachidonic metabolism, showed no effects against anti-apoptotic effects produced by diclofenac. Thapsigargin and tunicamycin each significantly activated caspase-3, -9, and -2 in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. Diclofenac suppressed the activation of caspases induced by both ER stresses. Thapsigargin and tunicamycin decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in SH-SY5Y cells. Diclofenac suppressed the mitochondrial depolarization induced by both ER stresses. Diclofenac inhibited ER-stress-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by suppressing the activation of caspases in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. This is the first report to find that diclofenac has protective effects against ER-stress-induced apoptosis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience