Objective Since the majority of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that are used in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are mainly metabolized by CYP3A4, it is hypothesized that inter-individual differences in CYP3A4 activity may be associated with the bioavailability of these agents. Methods The level of serum 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4βHC), a surrogate marker of CYP3A4 activity, was determined by LC-MS/MS in samples obtained from patients with HCV infection (CHCs) as well as healthy control subjects (CTLs). Serum samples obtained from patients treated with either asunaprevir/daclatasvir (ASV/DCV) or ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (OTV/PTV/r) were used for additional assays. Results The serum 4βHC level in CHCs was significantly higher than that in CTLs, and a gender difference was seen among CHCs. In patients treated with OTV/PTV/r, the serum 4βHC level was observed to gradually decrease during the treatment period. In the cohort treated with ASV/DCV, 4 of 83 patients showed virological treatment failure. In pretreatment testing, an Invader assay detected a low prevalence of resistance-associated variants in these four patients. The average serum concentration of DCV/ASV in the treatment-failed group tended to be lower than that in the sustained virological response (SVR) group. The pretreatment serum 4βHC level in patients with treatment failure was significantly higher than that in patients with an SVR but in whom the prevalence of resistance-associated variants was low in the pretreatment setting. Conclusion The evaluation of CYP3A4 activity by measuring 4βHC before treatment may provide additional information that can potentially be used to select cost- and efficacy-optimized treatment of HCV.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine