Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of viral endotheliitis after keratoplasty, we evaluated clinical parameters in individuals with anterior chamber inflammation after keratoplasty classified according to the absence or presence of DNA from various viruses in aqueous humor. Methods: A total of 29 eyes of 27 subjects with anterior chamber inflammation after keratoplasty were enrolled in the study. The subjects were classified into the herpes simplex virus (HSV) group (7 patients, 8 eyes), cytomegalovirus (CMV) group (6 patients, 6 eyes), varicella zoster virus group (2 patients, 2 eyes), and nonviral group (12 patients, 13 eyes) on the basis of detection of viral DNA in aqueous humor. The interval between keratoplasty and the onset of inflammation, changes in intraocular pressure (IOP), and corneal manifestations of inflammation were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Sixteen of the 29 eyes developed anterior chamber inflammation within 2 years after keratoplasty. IOP during active inflammation was significantly increased in the HSV and CMV groups compared with preinflammation values, and the increased IOP was significantly ameliorated in association with resolution of inflammation. Linear-type keratoprecipitates were frequently detected in the HSV (5 of 8 eyes), CMV (3 of 6 eyes), and nonviral (6 of 13 eyes) groups. Corneal edema was also commonly observed in the HSV (7 of 8 eyes) and nonviral (13 of 13 eyes) groups. Conclusions: Changes in IOP and corneal manifestations may provide a basis for differentiation of viral endotheliitis from allograft rejection and among viral pathogens in individuals with anterior chamber inflammation after keratoplasty, and they may thus allow initiation of appropriate treatment before viral DNA is identified.
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