Introduction: The transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is an available approach for carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), especially in the event that there is no other suitable approach route to the fistula. Surgical exposure of the peripheral roots of the SOV is commonly used; however, often, the SOV is often not accessible because of anatomical problems and/or complications. In this paper, we present and discuss our original direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the SOV. Methods: An attempt on three patients with traumatic CCF failed with the transarterial approach and the conventional venous approach via the inferior petrosal sinus; therefore, the patients were treated with the direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the SOV using two-dimensional digital subtraction angiography with local anesthesia. Results: All cases that had tortuous and partially stenotic division of the SOV were treated successfully with this approach and without complications. Conclusion: This approach will become an alternate approach, especially when the peripheral roots of the SOV are focally narrowed and tortuous, making it impossible to insert a catheter.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine