Bisphenol A (BPA) is used as an industrial raw material for polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins; however, various concerns have been reported regarding its status as an endocrine-disrupting chemical. BPA interacts not only with oestrogen receptors (ERs) but constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor, and oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ); therefore, the bisphenol structure represents a privileged structure for the nuclear-receptor superfamily. Here, we screen 127 BPA-related compounds by competitive-binding assay using [3H]oestradiol and find that 20 compounds bind to ERα with high affinity. We confirm most of these as ERα agonists; however, four compounds, including bisphenol M and bisphenol P act as novel antagonists. These structures harbour three benzene rings in tandem with terminal hydroxy groups at para-positions, with this tandem tri-ring bisphenol structure representing a novel privileged structure for an ERα antagonist. Additionally, we perform an ab initio calculation and develop a new clipping method for halogen bonding or non-covalent interaction using DV-Xα evaluation for biomolecules.
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