Discrete and continuum composite solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates with the Rashba spin-orbit coupling in one and two dimensions

Hidetsugu Sakaguchi, Boris A. Malomed

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    33 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We introduce one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) continuum and discrete models for the two-component BEC, with the spin-orbit (SO) coupling of the Rashba type between the components, and attractive cubic interactions, assuming that the condensate is fragmented into a quasidiscrete state by a deep optical-lattice potential. In 1D, it is demonstrated, in analytical and numerical forms, that the ground states of both the discrete system and its continuum counterpart switch from striped bright solitons, featuring deep short-wave modulations of its profile, to smooth solitons, as the strength ratio of the inter- and intracomponent attraction, γ, changes from γ<1 to γ>1. At the borderline, γ=1, there is a continuous branch of stable solitons, which share a common value of the energy and interpolate between the striped and smooth ones. Unlike the 2D system, the 1D solitons, which do not represent the ground state at given γ, are nevertheless stable against small perturbations, and they remain stable too in collisions with other solitons. In 2D, a transition between two different types of discrete solitons, which represent the ground state, viz., semivortices and mixed modes, also takes place at γ=1. A specific property of 2D discrete solitons of both types is their discontinuous transition into a delocalized state at a critical value of the SO-coupling strength. We also address the continuum 2D model in the borderline case of γ=1, which was not studied previously, and demonstrate the existence of an energy-degenerate branch of dynamically stable solitons connecting the semivortex and the mixed mode. Last, it is demonstrated that 1D and 2D discrete solitons are mobile, in a limited interval of velocities.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number062922
    JournalPhysical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
    Volume90
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 29 2014

    Fingerprint

    Spin-orbit Coupling
    Bose-Einstein Condensate
    Bose-Einstein condensates
    One Dimension
    Solitons
    Two Dimensions
    Continuum
    solitary waves
    Composite
    continuums
    orbits
    composite materials
    Ground State
    Mixed Mode
    ground state
    Branch
    Optical Lattice
    2-D Systems
    Continuum Model
    Condensate

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
    • Statistics and Probability
    • Condensed Matter Physics

    Cite this

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    abstract = "We introduce one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) continuum and discrete models for the two-component BEC, with the spin-orbit (SO) coupling of the Rashba type between the components, and attractive cubic interactions, assuming that the condensate is fragmented into a quasidiscrete state by a deep optical-lattice potential. In 1D, it is demonstrated, in analytical and numerical forms, that the ground states of both the discrete system and its continuum counterpart switch from striped bright solitons, featuring deep short-wave modulations of its profile, to smooth solitons, as the strength ratio of the inter- and intracomponent attraction, γ, changes from γ<1 to γ>1. At the borderline, γ=1, there is a continuous branch of stable solitons, which share a common value of the energy and interpolate between the striped and smooth ones. Unlike the 2D system, the 1D solitons, which do not represent the ground state at given γ, are nevertheless stable against small perturbations, and they remain stable too in collisions with other solitons. In 2D, a transition between two different types of discrete solitons, which represent the ground state, viz., semivortices and mixed modes, also takes place at γ=1. A specific property of 2D discrete solitons of both types is their discontinuous transition into a delocalized state at a critical value of the SO-coupling strength. We also address the continuum 2D model in the borderline case of γ=1, which was not studied previously, and demonstrate the existence of an energy-degenerate branch of dynamically stable solitons connecting the semivortex and the mixed mode. Last, it is demonstrated that 1D and 2D discrete solitons are mobile, in a limited interval of velocities.",
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    AB - We introduce one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) continuum and discrete models for the two-component BEC, with the spin-orbit (SO) coupling of the Rashba type between the components, and attractive cubic interactions, assuming that the condensate is fragmented into a quasidiscrete state by a deep optical-lattice potential. In 1D, it is demonstrated, in analytical and numerical forms, that the ground states of both the discrete system and its continuum counterpart switch from striped bright solitons, featuring deep short-wave modulations of its profile, to smooth solitons, as the strength ratio of the inter- and intracomponent attraction, γ, changes from γ<1 to γ>1. At the borderline, γ=1, there is a continuous branch of stable solitons, which share a common value of the energy and interpolate between the striped and smooth ones. Unlike the 2D system, the 1D solitons, which do not represent the ground state at given γ, are nevertheless stable against small perturbations, and they remain stable too in collisions with other solitons. In 2D, a transition between two different types of discrete solitons, which represent the ground state, viz., semivortices and mixed modes, also takes place at γ=1. A specific property of 2D discrete solitons of both types is their discontinuous transition into a delocalized state at a critical value of the SO-coupling strength. We also address the continuum 2D model in the borderline case of γ=1, which was not studied previously, and demonstrate the existence of an energy-degenerate branch of dynamically stable solitons connecting the semivortex and the mixed mode. Last, it is demonstrated that 1D and 2D discrete solitons are mobile, in a limited interval of velocities.

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