In this study, we consider one-dimensional (1D) quantum spin systems with translation and discrete symmetries (spin reversal, space inversion, and time reversal symmetries). By combining the continuous U(1) symmetry with the discrete symmetries and using the extended Lieb-Schultz-Mattis (LSM) theorem [E. Lieb, T. Schultz, and D. Mattis, Ann. Phys. 16, 407 (1961); K. Nomura, J. Morishige, and T. Isoyama, J. Phys. A 48, 375001 (2015)], we investigate the relation between the ground states, energy spectra, and symmetries. For half-integer spin cases, we generalize the dimer and Néel concepts using the discrete symmetries, and we can reconcile the LSM theorem with the dimer or Néel states, since there was a subtle dilemma. Furthermore, a part of discrete symmetries is enough to classify possible phases. Thus we can deepen our understanding of the relation between the LSM theorem and discrete symmetries.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)