Background: The pathological conditions of UC and CD involved in inflammatory bowel disease-unclassified (IBD-U), UC with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC-UC), and UC with autoimmune pancreatitis type 2 (AIP-UC) remain unclear. Therefore, it is difficult to decide the appropriate treatments for these subtypes of UC. Our aim was to examine whether the discriminant equation using the mucosally expressed mediators designed as our previous study for IBD, could characterize IBD-U, PSC-UC, or AIP-UC. Methods: A total of 56 patients including UC (n = 24), CD (n = 15), IBD-U (n = 10), PSC-UC (n = 4), and AIP-UC (n = 3), along with 9 control patients were enrolled in this study. Mucosally expressed inflammatory mediators related to Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were measured using quantitative PCR in endoscopic biopsies from the inflamed intestines of the patients. The IBD-U, PSC-UC or AIP-UC were characterized using discriminant analysis and principle component analysis. Results: Through discriminant analyses, combinations of 3 to 7 inflammatory mediators were used to discriminate between UC and CD. Moreover, the identified 3 markers could diagnose patients with IBD-U as UC or CD with high accuracy. The distribution graph of inflammatory mediators using the principal component analysis revealed that PSC-UC and AIP-UC exhibited CD-like and UC-like features, respectively. Conclusions: The discriminant equation using mucosally expressed mediators of IL-13, IL-21 and T-bet can be used as a universal diagnostic tool not only for IBD-U but also to assess pathological conditions in PSC-UC and AIP-UC.
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