Background: How T follicular (Tfh) cells contribute to many different B-cell class-switching events during T-cell–dependent immune responses has been unclear. Diseases with polarized isotype switching offer a unique opportunity for the exploration of Tfh subsets. Secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs in patients with elevated tissue expression levels of IgE (Kimura disease, KD) and those of IgG4 (IgG4-related disease, IgG4-RD) can provide important insights regarding cytokine expression by Tfh cells. Objective: We sought to identify disease-specific Tfh cell subsets in secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs expressing IL-10 or IL-13 and thus identify different cellular drivers of class switching in 2 distinct types of fibrotic disorders: allergic fibrosis (driven by type 2 immune cells) and inflammatory fibrosis (driven by cytotoxic T lymphocytes). Methods: Single-cell RNA sequencing, in situ sequencing, and multicolor immunofluorescence analysis were used to investigate B cells, Tfh cells, and infiltrating type 2 cells in lesion tissues from patients with KD or IgG4-RD. Results: Infiltrating Tfh cells in tertiary lymphoid organs from IgG4-RD were divided into 6 main clusters. We encountered abundant infiltrating IL-10–expressing LAG3+ Tfh cells in patients with IgG4-RD. Furthermore, we found that infiltrating AICDA+CD19+ B cells expressing IL-4, IL-10, and IL-21 receptors correlated with IgG4 expression. In contrast, we found that infiltrating IL-13–expressing Tfh cells were abundant in affected tissues from patients with KD. Moreover, we observed few infiltrating IL-13–expressing Tfh cells in tissues from patients with IgG4-RD, despite high serum levels of IgE (but low IgE in the disease lesions). Cytotoxic T cells were abundant in IgG4-RD; in contrast, type 2 immune cells were abundant in KD. Conclusions: Our analysis revealed a novel subset of IL-10+LAG3+ Tfh cells infiltrating the affected organs of IgG4-RD patients. In contrast, IL-13+ Tfh cells and type 2 immune cells infiltrated those of KD patients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy