The complement system membrane cofactor protein (MCP) CD46 serves as a C3b/C4b inactivating factor for the protection of host cells from autologous complement attack and as a receptor for measles virus (MV). MCP consists of four short consensus repeats (SCR) which are the predominant extracellular structural motif. In the present study, we determined which of the four SCR of MCP contribute to its function using Chinese hamster ovary cell clones expressing each SCR deletion mutants. The results were as follows: 1) SCR1 and SCR2 are mainly involved in MV binding and infection; 2) SCR2, SCR3, and SCR4 contribute to protect Chinese hamster ovary cells from human alternative complement pathway-mediated cytolysis; and 3) SCR2 and SCR3 are essential for protection of host cells from the classical complement pathway. These results on cell protective activity of the mutants against the human classical and the alternative complement pathways were compatible with factor I-mediated inactivation profiles of C4b and C3b, respectively, in the fluid-phase assay using solubilized mutants and factor I; the results were mostly consistent with those reported by Adams et al. (Adams, E. M., Brown, M. C., Nunge, M., Krych, M. and Atkinson, J. P. (1991) J. Immunol. 147, 3005-3011). SCR2 and SCR3 were required for C3b and C4b inactivation, and SCR4-deleted MCP showed weak cofactor activity for C4b cleavage but virtually no cofactor activity for C3b cleavage. The functional domains of MCP for the three natural ligands C3b, C4b, and MV, therefore, map to different, although partly overlapping, SCR domains.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology