Recent studies have suggested that macrophages were integrated into adipose tissues to interact with adipocytes, thereby exacerbating inflammatory responses. Furthermore, both adipocytes and macrophages appear to express toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), and free fatty acids may stimulate cells through TLR-4. Herein, we analyzed genes differentially expressed in adipocytes when co-cultured with macrophages in the presence of a ligand for TLR-4, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RAW264.7, a murine macrophage cell line and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were co-cultured using a transwell system. Genes differentially expressed in adipocytes were analyzed by the DNA microarray method following 4, 8, 12 and 24 h stimulation with 1 ng ml-1 of Escherichia coli LPS. Randomly selected genes with high expressions were confirmed by quantitative methods at both the gene and the protein level. Co-culture of macrophages and adipocytes with a low LPS concentration (1 ng ml-1) markedly upregulated gene expressions associated with inflammation and/or angiogenesis, such as those of interleukin-6 (IL-6), MCP-1, RANTES and CXCL1/KC, in adipocytes. Furthermore, several genes associated with insulin resistance were differentially expressed. Upregulations of genes encoding MCP-1, RANTES and CXC/KC were confirmed by quantitative methods. These results suggest that ligands for TLR-4 stimulate both adipocytes and macrophages to upregulate the expressions of many genes associated with inflammation and/or angiogenesis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics