Moyamoya disease is a clinical entity demonstrating a chronic occlusion of the cerebrovascular system. Although some possible etiological factors have been postulated, the etiology of this disease is still unknown. So far, some investigations have suggested the association between moyamoya disease and HLA in the serological typing. However, DNA typing of HLA have not been performed yet. Thus, we performed DNA-typing of HLA in the unrelated Japanese patients with definite moyamoya disease, using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probe (PCR-SSOP) technique. In the total patients, DQB1*0502 had a positive association with the disease. On the other hand, DRB1* 0405 and DQB 1* 0401 showed a negative association. In comparing the early-onset and late-onset groups, two groups did not share the same disease associated alleles at all. Thus, the etiology of moyamoya disease seem to have a genetic background. Furthermore, different genetic factors might also be involved in the difference between the early-onset and late-onset groups.
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