Dynamic knee kinematics were analyzed for normal knees in three activities, including two different types of maximum knee flexion. Continuous X-ray images of kneel, squat, and stair climb motions were taken using a large flat panel detector. CT-derived bone models were used for model registration-based 3D kinematic measurement. Three-dimensional joint kinematics and contact locations were determined using three methods: bone-fixed coordinate systems, interrogation of CT-based bone model surfaces, and interrogation of MR-based articular cartilage model surfaces. The femur exhibited gradual external rotation throughout the flexion range. Tibiofemoral contact exhibited external rotation, with contact locations translating posterior while maintaining 15° to 20° external rotation from 20° to 80° of flexion. From 80° to maximum flexion, contact locations showed a medial pivot pattern. Kinematics based on bone-fixed coordinate systems differed from kinematics based on interrogation of CT and MR surfaces. Knee kinematics varied significantly by activity, especially in deep flexion. No posterior subluxation occurred for either femoral condyle in maximum knee flexion. Normal knees accommodate a range of motions during various activities while maintaining geometric joint congruency.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine