The peroxisome is a single-membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotes. The functional importance of peroxisomes in humans is highlighted by peroxisome-deficient PBDs (peroxisome biogenesis disorders), such as Zellweger syndrome. Two AAA (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) peroxins, Pex1p and Pex6p, are encoded by PEX1 and PEX6, the causal genes for CG (complementation group) 1 and CG4 PBDs respectively. PEX26, which is responsible for CG8 PBDs, codes for Pex26p, the recruiter of Pex1p-Pex6p complexes to peroxisomes. We recently assigned the binding regions between human Pex1p and Pex6p and elucidated the pivotal roles that the AAA cassettes, D1 and D2 domains, play in Pex1p-Pex6p interaction and in peroxisome biogenesis. ATP binding to both AAA cassettes of Pex1p and Pex6p was a prerequisite for the Pex1p-Pex6p interaction and peroxisomal localization, but ATP hydrolysis by the D2 domains was not required. Pex1p exists in two distinct oligomeric forms, a homo-oligomer in the cytosol and a hetero-oligomer on peroxisome membranes, with these possibly having distinct functions in peroxisome biogenesis. AAA peroxins are involved in the export from peroxisomes of Pex5p, the PTS1 (peroxisome-targeting signal type 1) receptor.
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