Dynamic deformation behavior of a golf ball during normal impact

Kazuo Arakawa, T. Mada, H. Komatsu, T. Shimizu, M. Satou, K. Takehara, G. Etoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


The normal impact between a golf ball and a rigid steel target was studied to examine ball deformation and the contact force during the impact. Using high-speed video images, the normal and tangential compression ratios of the ball were measured to analyze the ball deformation quantitatively. In addition, the inbound and rebound ball velocities, contact time, and coefficient of restitution were determined as basic parameters of the impact. As the inbound ball velocity increased, the maximum normal compression ratio increased while the maximum tangential compression ratio, contact time and coefficient of restitution decreased. The ball center displacements during the impact were measured to determine the ball center velocity and acceleration, and the contact force was calculated by the product of the mass and acceleration. The contact force increased almost linearly with the inbound ball velocity, and its relationship agreed well quantitatively with the results from a load-cell, and also agreed well qualitatively with Hertz contact theory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)471-477
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental Mechanics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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