Maintaining energy production efficiency is of vital importance to plants growing under changing environments. Cardiolipin localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane plays various important roles in mitochondrial function and its activity, although the regulation of mitochondrial morphology to various stress conditions remains obscure, particularly in the context of changes in cellular water relations and metabolisms. By combining single-cell metabolomics with transmission electron microscopy, we have investigated the adaptation mechanism in tomato trichome stalk cells at moderate salt stress to determine the kinetics of cellular parameters and metabolisms. We have found that turgor loss occurred just after the stress conditions, followed by the contrasting volumetric changes in mitochondria and cells, the accumulation of TCA cycle-related metabolites at osmotic adjustment, and a temporal increase in cardiolipin concentration, resulting in a reversible topological modification in the tubulo-vesicular cristae. Because all of these cellular events were dynamically observed in the same single-cells without causing any disturbance for redox states and cytoplasmic streaming, we conclude that turgor pressure might play a regulatory role in the mitochondrial morphological switch throughout the temporal activation of cardiolipin biosynthesis, which sustains mitochondrial respiration and energy conversion even under the salt stress conditions.
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