Background: The pathology of multiple system atrophy cerebellar-type (MSA-C) includes glial inflammation; however, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokine profiles have not been investigated. In this study, we determined CSF cytokine/chemokine/growth factor profiles in MSA-C and compared them with those in hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). Methods: We collected clinical data and CSF from 20 MSA-C patients, 12 hereditary SCA patients, and 15 patients with other non-inflammatory neurological diseases (OND), and measured 27 cytokines/chemokines/growth factors using a multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay. The size of each part of the hindbrain and hot cross bun sign (HCBS) in the pons was studied by magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7, IL-12, and IL-13 levels were significantly higher in MSA-C and SCA compared with OND. In MSA-C, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13, platelet-derived growth factor-bb, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and GM-CSF levels positively correlated with anteroposterior diameters of the pontine base, vermis, or medulla oblongata. By contrast, in SCA patients, IL-12 and MIP-1α showed significant negative correlations with anteroposterior diameters of the pontine base, and unlike MSA-C, there was no cytokine with a positive correlation in SCA. IL-6 was significantly higher in MSA-C patients with the lowest grade of HCBS compared with those with the highest grade. Macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) had a significant negative correlation with disease duration only in MSA-C patients. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-2, IL-15, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-8 were all significantly lower in MSA-C and SCA compared with OND, while IL-1ra, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was elevated only in MSA-C. IL-1β and IL-8 had positive correlations with Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale part 1 and 2, respectively, in MSA-C. Conclusions: Although CSF cytokine/chemokine/growth factor profiles were similar between MSA-C and SCA, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, GM-CSF, and MCP-1, correlated with the disease stage in a way higher at the beginning only in MSA-C, reflecting early stronger intrathecal inflammation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience