Topographical modification of the dental implant surface is one of the main topics for the improvement of the material, however, the roughened surface has some risks for peri-implantitis. A hydrothermal treatment (HT) of titanium with calcium chloride solution was reported to improve osseointegration and soft tissue sealing without changing the surface topography; however, its mechanism is unclear. We herewith investigated the interaction between extracellular matrix (ECM) protein and HT titanium. Furthermore, we also clarified the bacterial interaction. We employed two kinds of HT, HT with water (DW-HT) and HT with calcium chloride solution (Ca-HT). As a result, the adsorptions of both laminin-332 and osteopontin onto the Ca-HT surface were enhanced. In contrast, the adsorption of albumin, which was reported to have no cell adhesion capacity, was not influenced by Ca-HT. Osteoblast adhesion onto Ca-HT was also enhanced. Although Ca-HT was reported to enhance both epithelial cell attachment strength and in vivo peri-implant epithelial bonding, the number of epithelial cell attachment was not increased even after HT. Ca-HT had no impact in the adhesion of Streptococcus gordonii. These results suggest that Ca-HT enhances cell adhesion onto titanium without increasing bacterial adhesion, and the improvement of ECM protein adsorption is supposed to contribute to cell adhesion.