Hyperpyrexia occasionally triggers acute life-threatening encephalopathy-like illnesses, including influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) in childhood, and can be responsible for impaired fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). In this regard, patients with impaired FAO may be more susceptible to febrile episodes. The effects of heat stress and a hypolipidemic drug, bezafibrate, on mitochondrial FAO were investigated using cultured cells from children with FAO disorders and from normal controls, using an in vitro probe acylcarnitine (AC) profiling assay. Fibroblasts were incubated in medium loaded with unlabelled palmitic acid for 96. h at 37 and 41°C, with or without bezafibrate. AC profiles in culture medium were analyzed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Heat stress, introduced by 41°C, significantly increased acetylcarnitine (C2) but slightly decreased the other acylcarnitines (ACs) in controls and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-deficient cells. On the other hand, in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD)-deficient cells, accumulation of long-chain ACs were enhanced at 41°C, compared with that at 37°C. In contrast, bezafibrate decreased long-chain ACs with significant increase of C2 in both control and VLCAD-deficient cells at 37°C. These data suggest that heat stress specifically inhibits long-chain FAO, whereas bezafibrate recovers the impaired FAO. Our approach is a simple and promising strategy to evaluate the effects of heat stress or therapeutic drugs on mitochondrial FAO.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental Neuroscience
- Clinical Neurology