Objective: To investigate the usefulness of low-dose milrinone on gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) and systemic inflammation in patients undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Design: Prospective randomized study. Setting: University hospital. Participants: Twenty patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. Interventions: Ten patients were administered a low dose of milrinone, 0.25 μg/kg/min, from the initiation of CPB to 1 hour after admission to the intensive care unit. The other patients were administered saline. Supplemental inotropes and intravenous fluid were given to obtain adequate mean arterial blood pressure and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure. Measurements and Main Results: Gastric phi and carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2) were assessed by capnometric air tonometry. The difference between PCO2 and arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2), PCO2-gap, was also examined. Systemic inflammatory responses were evaluated by serum interleukin-6 and leukocyte counts. Hemodynamics, oxygen delivery index, and oxygen uptake index were monitored with catheters in the radial and pulmonary arteries (thermodilution). The hepatic venous blood flow and left ventricular flow were measured using transesophageal echocardiography. Milrinone prevented gastric intramucosal acidosis, detected as a decrease in phi or an increase in PCO2-gap, without affecting hepatic venous blood flow. Increases in interleukin-6, leukocyte count, and oxygen uptake index, all of which developed after CPB, were significantly less in the milrinone group than in the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that in patients undergoing hypothermic CPB, supplemental low-dose milrinone prevents gastric intramucosal acidosis and increases in some markers of systemic inflammation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine