Background/Aims: Interferon (IFN) therapy improves the prognosis of the patients with HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the effects of IFN therapy for hepatectomy (Hx) for primary HCC have not been established. Several published reports investigating the effects of IFN therapy on survival and tumor recurrence after curative resection of HCC have been inconclusive. Methodology: Subjects included 470 patients who underwent Hx for HCV-related primary HCC. One hundred and fifty nine patients received IFN therapy past or postoperatively of the first Hx. Seventy-four of those patients attained a sustained viral response (SVR group). The other 396 patients, including 85 were no responders (NR) and 311 patients who had not received IFN therapy (non-IFN) were classified as the control group. Results: Overall survival (SVR group vs. control group: 5-yr, 93.2 vs. 61.9%; p<0.0001) and disease-free survival (SVR group vs. control group: 5-yr, 56.0 vs. 27.4%; p<0.0001) rates were significantly different. By multivariate analysis, NR/non-IFN was the independent risk factor for overall survival (p=0.0002) and disease-free survival (p=0.0053) after Hx. Conclusions: SVR achieved past or postoperatively to the Hx of HCV-related HCC significantly inhibits recurrence and consequently improves patient survival after Hx for HCC.
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