To investigate the effects of a combination of an antibacterial agent (ofloxacin) and a collagenase inhibitor (FN-439) in the root canal treatment of apical periodontitis, we studied the healing process of experimentally induced periapical lesions in rats by using immunohistochemical methods. With a topical application of a combination of ofloxacin and FN-439 following experimentally induced periapical lesions, both neutrophils and macrophages became significantly decreased in number, while active cementogenesis and extensive bone formation were seen in the periapical region. However, the use of ofloxacin alone also demonstrated a beneficial effect on periapical inflammation and healing. Therefore, it is suggested that ofloxacin is powerful against bacterial infection whether FN-439 is added. The only observed effect of a combination of ofloxacin and FN-439 is that it may more effectively inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption and activate the remodeling of the apical periodontal tissue if this combined medicament is used in a stage of active bone destruction characterized by high production of tissue collagenase.
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