Effects of discharge level on the load of dissolved and particulate components of stream nitrogen and phosphorus from a small afforested watershed of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa)

Jun'ichiro Ide, Osamu Nagafuchi, Masaaki Chiwa, Atsushi Kume, Kyoichi Otsuki, Shigeru Ogawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The behavior of dissolved and particulate components of stream nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were measured for 2 years in a small mountainous watershed covered primarily with a plantation forest of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa). The load of dissolved N and P bore a consistent relationship to discharge while the load of particulate N and P varied by up to two orders of magnitude at a given discharge level. Most N was exported in a dissolved form (DN) while most P was exported in a particulate form (PP), which bears similarity to loads from agricultural watersheds. Owing to the different behaviors of DN and PP, changes in the total nitrogen (TN) load were primarily attributed to variations in discharge unlike changes in the total phosphorus (TP) load. High flow conditions, resulting from heavy rainfall, displayed PP release significantly larger than expected. The TP load in high flow conditions was severely underestimated using a regression equation expressed as a function of discharge, which was based on the weekly sampling data biased toward low flow conditions. In addition, the TN load during peak discharges in heavy rain events was underestimated by the regression equation because of unpredictable increases in the particulate component. Our study shows that the particulate component ratio determines whether discharge can explain changes in load regardless of chemical species. The results suggest that plantation forests in rainy regions can be a diffuse source of particulate nutrients depending on soil surface conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-56
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Forest Research
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2007

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Chamaecyparis obtusa
particulates
watershed
phosphorus
nitrogen
forest plantations
plantation
peak discharge
rain
agricultural watersheds
chemical speciation
low flow
soil surface
effect
rainfall
nutrient
sampling
nutrients
soil

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Forestry

Cite this

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abstract = "The behavior of dissolved and particulate components of stream nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were measured for 2 years in a small mountainous watershed covered primarily with a plantation forest of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa). The load of dissolved N and P bore a consistent relationship to discharge while the load of particulate N and P varied by up to two orders of magnitude at a given discharge level. Most N was exported in a dissolved form (DN) while most P was exported in a particulate form (PP), which bears similarity to loads from agricultural watersheds. Owing to the different behaviors of DN and PP, changes in the total nitrogen (TN) load were primarily attributed to variations in discharge unlike changes in the total phosphorus (TP) load. High flow conditions, resulting from heavy rainfall, displayed PP release significantly larger than expected. The TP load in high flow conditions was severely underestimated using a regression equation expressed as a function of discharge, which was based on the weekly sampling data biased toward low flow conditions. In addition, the TN load during peak discharges in heavy rain events was underestimated by the regression equation because of unpredictable increases in the particulate component. Our study shows that the particulate component ratio determines whether discharge can explain changes in load regardless of chemical species. The results suggest that plantation forests in rainy regions can be a diffuse source of particulate nutrients depending on soil surface conditions.",
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AU - Chiwa, Masaaki

AU - Kume, Atsushi

AU - Otsuki, Kyoichi

AU - Ogawa, Shigeru

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