Effects of fetus weight, dam strain, dam weight, and litter size on the craniofacial morphogenesis of CL/Fr mouse fetuses affected with cleft lip and palate

Kazuaki Nonaka, Yasunori Sasaki, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Ken Ichi Yanagita, Minoru Nakata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: This study examined the factors related to the morphogenesis of the craniofacial complex of the CL/Fr mouse fetus affected with CLP based on the findings of a lateral cephalogram. Design: Embryo transfer experiments were performed to determine the effect of the fetus weight, dam strain, dam weight, and litter size on the intra-uterine craniofacial morphogenesis of CL/Fr mouse fetuses. On the 18th gestational day, each pregnant dam that had received CL/Fr mouse embryos was laparotomized to remove the transferred fetuses that had developed in the uteri of the cleft lip and palate (CLP)- susceptible CL/Fr strain dam and the CLP-resistant C57BL strain dam. A cephalometric observation of the craniofacial morphology of each fetus was subsequently performed. Results: Based on a multiple regression analysis, the standardized partial regression coefficients of the affected fetus weight, the dam weight, and the lifter size on the maxillary size of the affected CL/Fr fetus were 0.71 (p < .01), 0.03, and -0.07. According to a least- squares analysis of variance, the dam strain effect in addition to the effect of the affected fetus weight on the maxillary size and the cranial size of the affected fetuses was significant (p < .01 for cranial size, p < .05 for maxillary size) and close to a significant level (p = .09) for the mandibular size of the affected fetuses. The adjusted maxillary size and cranial size after statistically eliminating the effects of the affected fetus weight, dam weight, and litter size on each original craniofacial size of the affected fetuses that had developed in the CL/Fr dam strain were also significantly smaller than those of the affected fetuses that had developed in the C57BL dam strain. Conclusions: The present results indicate that the craniofacial growth of the CL/Fr mouse fetus affected with CLP increased in proportion to the fetus weight. The dam strain effect, in addition to the effect of the affected fetus weight, could thus not be ignored when the etiology of the spontaneous CLP was examined, while the uterine environment, provided by the CL/Fr strain dam, retarded the intra-uterine craniofacial growth of the affected fetuses. It was therefore concluded that the dam strain effect, as well as the effect of the affected fetus weight, both play an important role on the craniofacial morphogenesis of the CL/Fr strain of the affected fetuses that developed in both strain dams.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-330
Number of pages6
JournalCleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
Volume34
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 1997

Fingerprint

Litter Size
Cleft Lip
Cleft Palate
Morphogenesis
Fetus
Weights and Measures
Cephalometry

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

Cite this

Effects of fetus weight, dam strain, dam weight, and litter size on the craniofacial morphogenesis of CL/Fr mouse fetuses affected with cleft lip and palate. / Nonaka, Kazuaki; Sasaki, Yasunori; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Yanagita, Ken Ichi; Nakata, Minoru.

In: Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, Vol. 34, No. 4, 01.07.1997, p. 325-330.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nonaka, Kazuaki ; Sasaki, Yasunori ; Watanabe, Yoshihisa ; Yanagita, Ken Ichi ; Nakata, Minoru. / Effects of fetus weight, dam strain, dam weight, and litter size on the craniofacial morphogenesis of CL/Fr mouse fetuses affected with cleft lip and palate. In: Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. 1997 ; Vol. 34, No. 4. pp. 325-330.
@article{1a08aa899e01461d9102b0a5e047942e,
title = "Effects of fetus weight, dam strain, dam weight, and litter size on the craniofacial morphogenesis of CL/Fr mouse fetuses affected with cleft lip and palate",
abstract = "Objective: This study examined the factors related to the morphogenesis of the craniofacial complex of the CL/Fr mouse fetus affected with CLP based on the findings of a lateral cephalogram. Design: Embryo transfer experiments were performed to determine the effect of the fetus weight, dam strain, dam weight, and litter size on the intra-uterine craniofacial morphogenesis of CL/Fr mouse fetuses. On the 18th gestational day, each pregnant dam that had received CL/Fr mouse embryos was laparotomized to remove the transferred fetuses that had developed in the uteri of the cleft lip and palate (CLP)- susceptible CL/Fr strain dam and the CLP-resistant C57BL strain dam. A cephalometric observation of the craniofacial morphology of each fetus was subsequently performed. Results: Based on a multiple regression analysis, the standardized partial regression coefficients of the affected fetus weight, the dam weight, and the lifter size on the maxillary size of the affected CL/Fr fetus were 0.71 (p < .01), 0.03, and -0.07. According to a least- squares analysis of variance, the dam strain effect in addition to the effect of the affected fetus weight on the maxillary size and the cranial size of the affected fetuses was significant (p < .01 for cranial size, p < .05 for maxillary size) and close to a significant level (p = .09) for the mandibular size of the affected fetuses. The adjusted maxillary size and cranial size after statistically eliminating the effects of the affected fetus weight, dam weight, and litter size on each original craniofacial size of the affected fetuses that had developed in the CL/Fr dam strain were also significantly smaller than those of the affected fetuses that had developed in the C57BL dam strain. Conclusions: The present results indicate that the craniofacial growth of the CL/Fr mouse fetus affected with CLP increased in proportion to the fetus weight. The dam strain effect, in addition to the effect of the affected fetus weight, could thus not be ignored when the etiology of the spontaneous CLP was examined, while the uterine environment, provided by the CL/Fr strain dam, retarded the intra-uterine craniofacial growth of the affected fetuses. It was therefore concluded that the dam strain effect, as well as the effect of the affected fetus weight, both play an important role on the craniofacial morphogenesis of the CL/Fr strain of the affected fetuses that developed in both strain dams.",
author = "Kazuaki Nonaka and Yasunori Sasaki and Yoshihisa Watanabe and Yanagita, {Ken Ichi} and Minoru Nakata",
year = "1997",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1597/1545-1569(1997)034<0325:EOFWDS>2.3.CO;2",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "325--330",
journal = "Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal",
issn = "1055-6656",
publisher = "American Cleft Palate Craniofacial Association",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of fetus weight, dam strain, dam weight, and litter size on the craniofacial morphogenesis of CL/Fr mouse fetuses affected with cleft lip and palate

AU - Nonaka, Kazuaki

AU - Sasaki, Yasunori

AU - Watanabe, Yoshihisa

AU - Yanagita, Ken Ichi

AU - Nakata, Minoru

PY - 1997/7/1

Y1 - 1997/7/1

N2 - Objective: This study examined the factors related to the morphogenesis of the craniofacial complex of the CL/Fr mouse fetus affected with CLP based on the findings of a lateral cephalogram. Design: Embryo transfer experiments were performed to determine the effect of the fetus weight, dam strain, dam weight, and litter size on the intra-uterine craniofacial morphogenesis of CL/Fr mouse fetuses. On the 18th gestational day, each pregnant dam that had received CL/Fr mouse embryos was laparotomized to remove the transferred fetuses that had developed in the uteri of the cleft lip and palate (CLP)- susceptible CL/Fr strain dam and the CLP-resistant C57BL strain dam. A cephalometric observation of the craniofacial morphology of each fetus was subsequently performed. Results: Based on a multiple regression analysis, the standardized partial regression coefficients of the affected fetus weight, the dam weight, and the lifter size on the maxillary size of the affected CL/Fr fetus were 0.71 (p < .01), 0.03, and -0.07. According to a least- squares analysis of variance, the dam strain effect in addition to the effect of the affected fetus weight on the maxillary size and the cranial size of the affected fetuses was significant (p < .01 for cranial size, p < .05 for maxillary size) and close to a significant level (p = .09) for the mandibular size of the affected fetuses. The adjusted maxillary size and cranial size after statistically eliminating the effects of the affected fetus weight, dam weight, and litter size on each original craniofacial size of the affected fetuses that had developed in the CL/Fr dam strain were also significantly smaller than those of the affected fetuses that had developed in the C57BL dam strain. Conclusions: The present results indicate that the craniofacial growth of the CL/Fr mouse fetus affected with CLP increased in proportion to the fetus weight. The dam strain effect, in addition to the effect of the affected fetus weight, could thus not be ignored when the etiology of the spontaneous CLP was examined, while the uterine environment, provided by the CL/Fr strain dam, retarded the intra-uterine craniofacial growth of the affected fetuses. It was therefore concluded that the dam strain effect, as well as the effect of the affected fetus weight, both play an important role on the craniofacial morphogenesis of the CL/Fr strain of the affected fetuses that developed in both strain dams.

AB - Objective: This study examined the factors related to the morphogenesis of the craniofacial complex of the CL/Fr mouse fetus affected with CLP based on the findings of a lateral cephalogram. Design: Embryo transfer experiments were performed to determine the effect of the fetus weight, dam strain, dam weight, and litter size on the intra-uterine craniofacial morphogenesis of CL/Fr mouse fetuses. On the 18th gestational day, each pregnant dam that had received CL/Fr mouse embryos was laparotomized to remove the transferred fetuses that had developed in the uteri of the cleft lip and palate (CLP)- susceptible CL/Fr strain dam and the CLP-resistant C57BL strain dam. A cephalometric observation of the craniofacial morphology of each fetus was subsequently performed. Results: Based on a multiple regression analysis, the standardized partial regression coefficients of the affected fetus weight, the dam weight, and the lifter size on the maxillary size of the affected CL/Fr fetus were 0.71 (p < .01), 0.03, and -0.07. According to a least- squares analysis of variance, the dam strain effect in addition to the effect of the affected fetus weight on the maxillary size and the cranial size of the affected fetuses was significant (p < .01 for cranial size, p < .05 for maxillary size) and close to a significant level (p = .09) for the mandibular size of the affected fetuses. The adjusted maxillary size and cranial size after statistically eliminating the effects of the affected fetus weight, dam weight, and litter size on each original craniofacial size of the affected fetuses that had developed in the CL/Fr dam strain were also significantly smaller than those of the affected fetuses that had developed in the C57BL dam strain. Conclusions: The present results indicate that the craniofacial growth of the CL/Fr mouse fetus affected with CLP increased in proportion to the fetus weight. The dam strain effect, in addition to the effect of the affected fetus weight, could thus not be ignored when the etiology of the spontaneous CLP was examined, while the uterine environment, provided by the CL/Fr strain dam, retarded the intra-uterine craniofacial growth of the affected fetuses. It was therefore concluded that the dam strain effect, as well as the effect of the affected fetus weight, both play an important role on the craniofacial morphogenesis of the CL/Fr strain of the affected fetuses that developed in both strain dams.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030743957&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030743957&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1597/1545-1569(1997)034<0325:EOFWDS>2.3.CO;2

DO - 10.1597/1545-1569(1997)034<0325:EOFWDS>2.3.CO;2

M3 - Article

C2 - 9257023

AN - SCOPUS:0030743957

VL - 34

SP - 325

EP - 330

JO - Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal

JF - Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal

SN - 1055-6656

IS - 4

ER -