Phosphorus is often added to wave-solder baths as an anti-oxidation agent. Despite this practice, there is little information on how phosphorus influences the solidification and flow properties of new lead-free solders such as Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni. This paper investigates the effects of phosphorus content on microstructure and maximum fluidity length in Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni-xP alloys containing 0-0.08 mass% phosphorous. Ppm levels of phosphorous are found to cause Sn-JrP, Ni-xP-(Sn) and Cu-xP-(Sn) intermetallic compounds to form in the liquid solder. The IMCs are less dense than liquid Sn and float towards the surface of the melt driven by buoyancy. It is shown that P-free Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni solidifies with a near-eutectic microstructure whereas, when P is added to this alloy, a significant volume fraction of primary Sn dendrites form once the P content exceeds ∼0.01 mass% P. It is further shown that P additions decrease the ability of Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni to flow as it solidifies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering