The effects of stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) remain controversial. We analyzed the feasibility of SCT and risk factors associated with outcomes of PTCL-NOS and AITL patients to identify the potential clinical efficacy of SCT. We retrospectively analyzed the data of PTCL-NOS (n = 83) and AITL (n = 112) patients who received autologous (n = 10 and 16, respectively) or allogeneic (n = 12 and 4, respectively) SCT, or no SCT (n = 61 and 92, respectively) between 2008 and 2018. All PTCL-NOS and AITL diagnoses were reconfirmed by an experienced hematopathologist. Median age at PTCL-NOS and AITL diagnoses in the SCT group was younger than that in the no SCT group. Significant risk factors for lower overall survival were intermediate–high and high-risk international prognostic indexes in PTCL-NOS patients (P = 0.0052), and a > 2 modified prognostic index for T-cell lymphoma (P = 0.0079) and no SCT (P = 0.028) in AITL patients. Autologous or allogeneic SCT compared with no SCT in AITL patients resulted in 3-year overall survival of 68.6% and 100% vs. 57.2% (P = 0.018). Strategies should be developed to improve selection of PTCL-NOS and AITL patients suitable for SCT and/or additional novel therapies.
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