Aims: The aim of the present study was to quantitate the hypoglycaemic effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1r) and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) as add-on treatments to metformin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a model-based meta-analysis (MBMA). Methods: A systematic literature search of public databases was conducted to develop models that describe the time courses of the fasting plasma glucose (FPG)- and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-lowering effects of three antidiabetic classes using NONMEM 7.3.0. Results: Seventy-six publications were eligible for this study, and 873 FPG and 1086 HbA1c values were collected. We developed a physiological indirect response model that described the time courses of FPG and HbA1c and simulated reductions in these values 90 days after the initiation of add-on treatments. FPG and HbA1c reductions with once weekly exenatide, liraglutide and dulaglutide were greater than those with other drugs. Mean changes from baseline FPG and HbA1c with these drugs were as follows: exenatide (−22.5 and −16.6%), liraglutide (−22.1 and −16.3%), and dulaglutide (−19.3 and −14.3%). The hypoglycaemic effects of DPP-4i and SGLT2i were similar. Conclusions: Once weekly exenatide, liraglutide and dulaglutide provided better hypoglycaemic effects among the antidiabetic drugs analysed. Long-acting GLP-1r appears to be more useful for T2DM patients inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)