Background and aim: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are histologically categorized according to the WHO 2010 classification by their mitotic index or Ki-67 index as G1, G2, or G3. The present study examined the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the diagnosis and grading of pNET. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 61 pNETs in 51 patients who underwent EUS between January 2007 and June 2014. All lesions were pathologically diagnosed by surgical resection or EUS-FNA. We evaluated the detection rates of EUS for pNET and sensitivity of EUS-FNA, and compared the Ki-67 index between EUS-FNA samples and surgical specimens. EUS findings were compared between G1 and G2/G3 tumors. Results: EUS showed significantly higher sensitivity (96.7%) for identifying pNET than CT (85.2%), MRI (70.2%), and ultrasonography (75.5%). The sensitivity of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of pNET was 89.2%. The concordance rate of WHO classification between EUS-FNA and surgical specimens was 69.2% (9/13). The concordance rate was relatively high (87.5%, 5/6) in tumors <20 mm but lower (57.1%; 4/7) in tumors ≥20 mm. Regarding EUS findings, G2/G3 tumors were more likely to be large (>20 mm), heterogeneous, and have main pancreatic duct (MPD) obstruction than G1 tumors. Multivariate analysis showed large diameter and MPD obstruction were significantly associated with G2/G3 tumors. Conclusions: EUS and EUS-FNA are highly sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods for pNET. Characteristic EUS findings such as large tumor size and MPD obstruction are suggestive of G2/G3 tumors and would be helpful for grading pNETs.
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