This paper investigates the problem of bidirectional energy exchange between electric vehicles (EVs) and road lanes embedded with wireless power transfer technologies called wireless chargingdischarging lanes (WCDLs). As such, EVs could provide better services to the grid, especially for balancing the energy supply-demand, while bringing convenience for EV users, because no cables and EV stops are needed. To enable this EV-WCDL energy exchange, a novel decentralized peer-to-peer (P2P) trading mechanism is proposed, in which EVs directly negotiate with a WCDL to reach consensus on the energy price and amounts to be traded. Those energy price and amounts are solutions of an optimization problem aiming at optimizing private cost functions of EVs and WCDL. The negotiation process between EVs and WCDL is secured by a privacy-preserving consensus protocol. Further, to assure successful trading with desired energy price and amounts, an analytical and systematic method is proposed to select cost function parameters by EVs and WCDL in a decentralized manner. Simulations are then carried out to validate the developed theoretical results, which confirm the effectiveness and scalability of the proposed algorithm.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Science(all)
- Materials Science(all)