Low-flow bypass, such as superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis, can result in cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS). The present study evaluated the pathophysiological conditions of CHS through the use of repeated electroencephalography (EEG). Among a total of 22 patients who underwent STA-MCA anastomosis over a course of 4 years, 3 patients were diagnosed with CHS based on clinical symptoms and neuroradiological examinations, including cerebral blood flow evaluation. Case 1 and Case 2 developed CHS on postoperative day 1, when EEG demonstrated focal slow waves on the frontal region of the operated side, indicating cortical dysfunction in these areas. Although prompt recovery of these EEG findings was noted with improvement of the clinical symptoms in Case 1, Case 2 developed an intracranial hemorrhage on postoperative day 5, when EEG clearly depicted persistent nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) after control of convulsive status epilepticus. In contrast, the clinical onset in Case 3 was delayed to postoperative day 6 and EEG revealed frequentictal discharges in the operated hemisphere, although convulsive seizures were not apparent. Administration of anticonvulsants was performed after the diagnosis of NCSE, and complete recovery from CHS was achieved. Although the pathophysiology of CHS is cortical dysfunction, ictal hyperperfusion associated with NCSE could be included. The present findings emphasize the importance of repeated EEG examinations in the differential diagnosis of the various types of pathophysiological conditions of CHS.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology