Electron Microscopy of the Tin-oxide Nanolayer Formed on the Surface of Sn-Ag-Cu Alloys

H. Sosiati, N. Kuwano, S. Hata

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Abstract

Sn-Ag-Cu alloy used in the present study is commercial Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder ball alloys with a diameter of 400 and 300 μm which were long term atmospheric oxidized for about 6 years (specimen-1) and under high temperature/humidity at 85°C and relative humidity of 85% for 2140 h, respectively. Morphologies and nanostructure of the oxide nanolayers formed on the surface of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys were studied from the interface of the oxide film and the tin substrate by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to verify the oxidation mechanism. Cross-sectional TEM specimens were prepared using a focused-ion-beam (FIB) micro-sampling technique. Before the FIB fabrication, the specimen surface was coated with carbon (C) and tungsten (W) films. Inhomogeneous thickness of tin-oxide nanolayer formed on specimen-1 and specimen-2 were fluctuated between 20-40 nm and 40-50 nm, respectively. The nanolayer on specimen-1, however, consists of polycrystalline SnO and SnO2, whereas the one on the specimen-2 comprises of polycrystalline SnO2. High resolution (HRTEM) image and fast Fourier transformation (FFT) spectra corresponding to the interface and the substrate areas have confirmed those results. The results verify that at very long atmospheric oxidation Sn was gradually oxidized to be SnO (Sn2+) and then SnO2 (Sn4+), in which SnO is present at the region closed to interface between Sn-substrate and the tin-oxide layer. At high temperature oxidation, however, Sn was completely oxidized to be SnO2.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012006
JournalIOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
Volume196
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 20 2017
Event3rd International Conference on Functional Materials Science 2016, ICFMS 2016 - Sanur-Bali, Indonesia
Duration: Oct 19 2016Oct 20 2016

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Tin oxides
Electron microscopy
Focused ion beams
Atmospheric humidity
Substrates
Transmission electron microscopy
Oxidation
Tungsten
Tin
Thermooxidation
Image resolution
Soldering alloys
Oxides
Oxide films
Nanostructures
Carbon
Sampling
Fabrication
stannic oxide
Temperature

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

Electron Microscopy of the Tin-oxide Nanolayer Formed on the Surface of Sn-Ag-Cu Alloys. / Sosiati, H.; Kuwano, N.; Hata, S.

In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 196, No. 1, 012006, 20.05.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

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title = "Electron Microscopy of the Tin-oxide Nanolayer Formed on the Surface of Sn-Ag-Cu Alloys",
abstract = "Sn-Ag-Cu alloy used in the present study is commercial Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder ball alloys with a diameter of 400 and 300 μm which were long term atmospheric oxidized for about 6 years (specimen-1) and under high temperature/humidity at 85°C and relative humidity of 85{\%} for 2140 h, respectively. Morphologies and nanostructure of the oxide nanolayers formed on the surface of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys were studied from the interface of the oxide film and the tin substrate by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to verify the oxidation mechanism. Cross-sectional TEM specimens were prepared using a focused-ion-beam (FIB) micro-sampling technique. Before the FIB fabrication, the specimen surface was coated with carbon (C) and tungsten (W) films. Inhomogeneous thickness of tin-oxide nanolayer formed on specimen-1 and specimen-2 were fluctuated between 20-40 nm and 40-50 nm, respectively. The nanolayer on specimen-1, however, consists of polycrystalline SnO and SnO2, whereas the one on the specimen-2 comprises of polycrystalline SnO2. High resolution (HRTEM) image and fast Fourier transformation (FFT) spectra corresponding to the interface and the substrate areas have confirmed those results. The results verify that at very long atmospheric oxidation Sn was gradually oxidized to be SnO (Sn2+) and then SnO2 (Sn4+), in which SnO is present at the region closed to interface between Sn-substrate and the tin-oxide layer. At high temperature oxidation, however, Sn was completely oxidized to be SnO2.",
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AB - Sn-Ag-Cu alloy used in the present study is commercial Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder ball alloys with a diameter of 400 and 300 μm which were long term atmospheric oxidized for about 6 years (specimen-1) and under high temperature/humidity at 85°C and relative humidity of 85% for 2140 h, respectively. Morphologies and nanostructure of the oxide nanolayers formed on the surface of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys were studied from the interface of the oxide film and the tin substrate by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to verify the oxidation mechanism. Cross-sectional TEM specimens were prepared using a focused-ion-beam (FIB) micro-sampling technique. Before the FIB fabrication, the specimen surface was coated with carbon (C) and tungsten (W) films. Inhomogeneous thickness of tin-oxide nanolayer formed on specimen-1 and specimen-2 were fluctuated between 20-40 nm and 40-50 nm, respectively. The nanolayer on specimen-1, however, consists of polycrystalline SnO and SnO2, whereas the one on the specimen-2 comprises of polycrystalline SnO2. High resolution (HRTEM) image and fast Fourier transformation (FFT) spectra corresponding to the interface and the substrate areas have confirmed those results. The results verify that at very long atmospheric oxidation Sn was gradually oxidized to be SnO (Sn2+) and then SnO2 (Sn4+), in which SnO is present at the region closed to interface between Sn-substrate and the tin-oxide layer. At high temperature oxidation, however, Sn was completely oxidized to be SnO2.

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