Elevated depressive symptoms in metabolic syndrome in a general population of Japanese men: A cross-sectional study

Atsuko Sekita, Hisatomi Arima, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Tomoyuki Ohara, Yasufumi Doi, Yoichiro Hirakawa, Masayo Fukuhara, Jun Hata, Koji Yonemoto, Yukiko Ga, Takanari Kitazono, Shigenobu Kanba, Yutaka Kiyohara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Uncertainty still surrounds the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depression. We aimed to evaluate the association between MetS and elevated depressive symptoms in a general Japanese population. Methods. This is a cross-sectional survey of 3,113 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or over. MetS was defined according to the joint interim statement. MetS was diagnosed when a subject had three or more of the following components: 1) central obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm for men, ≥80 cm in for women); 2) elevated blood pressure (≥130/85 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication); 3) hypertriglyceridemia (≥1.7 mmol/L); 4) low HDL cholesterol (< 1.0 mmol/L for men, < 1.3 mmol/L for women); and 5) elevated fasting plasma glucose (≥5.55 mmol/L or current use of antidiabetic medication). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The age- and multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using a logistic regression model. Results: Elevated depressive symptoms were observed in 4.3% of male and 6.3% of female participants. In men, the age-adjusted prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was significantly higher in subjects with MetS than in those without (7.1% versus 3.6%, p = 0.04). The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms rose progressively as the number of MetS components increased (3.5%, 3.6%, 5.8%, and 9.2% in male subjects with 0-1, 2, 3, and ≥4 components, respectively; p = 0.02 for trend). This association remained significant even after adjustment for age, marital status, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking habit, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. In women, on the other hand, there was no clear association between MetS and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: MetS was associated with elevated depressive symptoms in a general population of Japanese men.

Original languageEnglish
Article number862
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 20 2013

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Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression
Population
Logistic Models
Independent Living
Abdominal Obesity
Hypertriglyceridemia
Marital Status
Waist Circumference
Hypoglycemic Agents
HDL Cholesterol
Antihypertensive Agents
Uncertainty
Habits
Epidemiologic Studies
Fasting
Cardiovascular Diseases
Smoking
Odds Ratio
Alcohols

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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Elevated depressive symptoms in metabolic syndrome in a general population of Japanese men : A cross-sectional study. / Sekita, Atsuko; Arima, Hisatomi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Doi, Yasufumi; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Fukuhara, Masayo; Hata, Jun; Yonemoto, Koji; Ga, Yukiko; Kitazono, Takanari; Kanba, Shigenobu; Kiyohara, Yutaka.

In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 13, No. 1, 862, 20.09.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sekita, Atsuko ; Arima, Hisatomi ; Ninomiya, Toshiharu ; Ohara, Tomoyuki ; Doi, Yasufumi ; Hirakawa, Yoichiro ; Fukuhara, Masayo ; Hata, Jun ; Yonemoto, Koji ; Ga, Yukiko ; Kitazono, Takanari ; Kanba, Shigenobu ; Kiyohara, Yutaka. / Elevated depressive symptoms in metabolic syndrome in a general population of Japanese men : A cross-sectional study. In: BMC Public Health. 2013 ; Vol. 13, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Uncertainty still surrounds the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depression. We aimed to evaluate the association between MetS and elevated depressive symptoms in a general Japanese population. Methods. This is a cross-sectional survey of 3,113 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or over. MetS was defined according to the joint interim statement. MetS was diagnosed when a subject had three or more of the following components: 1) central obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm for men, ≥80 cm in for women); 2) elevated blood pressure (≥130/85 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication); 3) hypertriglyceridemia (≥1.7 mmol/L); 4) low HDL cholesterol (< 1.0 mmol/L for men, < 1.3 mmol/L for women); and 5) elevated fasting plasma glucose (≥5.55 mmol/L or current use of antidiabetic medication). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The age- and multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) were estimated using a logistic regression model. Results: Elevated depressive symptoms were observed in 4.3{\%} of male and 6.3{\%} of female participants. In men, the age-adjusted prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was significantly higher in subjects with MetS than in those without (7.1{\%} versus 3.6{\%}, p = 0.04). The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms rose progressively as the number of MetS components increased (3.5{\%}, 3.6{\%}, 5.8{\%}, and 9.2{\%} in male subjects with 0-1, 2, 3, and ≥4 components, respectively; p = 0.02 for trend). This association remained significant even after adjustment for age, marital status, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking habit, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. In women, on the other hand, there was no clear association between MetS and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: MetS was associated with elevated depressive symptoms in a general population of Japanese men.",
author = "Atsuko Sekita and Hisatomi Arima and Toshiharu Ninomiya and Tomoyuki Ohara and Yasufumi Doi and Yoichiro Hirakawa and Masayo Fukuhara and Jun Hata and Koji Yonemoto and Yukiko Ga and Takanari Kitazono and Shigenobu Kanba and Yutaka Kiyohara",
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T2 - A cross-sectional study

AU - Sekita, Atsuko

AU - Arima, Hisatomi

AU - Ninomiya, Toshiharu

AU - Ohara, Tomoyuki

AU - Doi, Yasufumi

AU - Hirakawa, Yoichiro

AU - Fukuhara, Masayo

AU - Hata, Jun

AU - Yonemoto, Koji

AU - Ga, Yukiko

AU - Kitazono, Takanari

AU - Kanba, Shigenobu

AU - Kiyohara, Yutaka

PY - 2013/9/20

Y1 - 2013/9/20

N2 - Background: Uncertainty still surrounds the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depression. We aimed to evaluate the association between MetS and elevated depressive symptoms in a general Japanese population. Methods. This is a cross-sectional survey of 3,113 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or over. MetS was defined according to the joint interim statement. MetS was diagnosed when a subject had three or more of the following components: 1) central obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm for men, ≥80 cm in for women); 2) elevated blood pressure (≥130/85 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication); 3) hypertriglyceridemia (≥1.7 mmol/L); 4) low HDL cholesterol (< 1.0 mmol/L for men, < 1.3 mmol/L for women); and 5) elevated fasting plasma glucose (≥5.55 mmol/L or current use of antidiabetic medication). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The age- and multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using a logistic regression model. Results: Elevated depressive symptoms were observed in 4.3% of male and 6.3% of female participants. In men, the age-adjusted prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was significantly higher in subjects with MetS than in those without (7.1% versus 3.6%, p = 0.04). The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms rose progressively as the number of MetS components increased (3.5%, 3.6%, 5.8%, and 9.2% in male subjects with 0-1, 2, 3, and ≥4 components, respectively; p = 0.02 for trend). This association remained significant even after adjustment for age, marital status, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking habit, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. In women, on the other hand, there was no clear association between MetS and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: MetS was associated with elevated depressive symptoms in a general population of Japanese men.

AB - Background: Uncertainty still surrounds the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depression. We aimed to evaluate the association between MetS and elevated depressive symptoms in a general Japanese population. Methods. This is a cross-sectional survey of 3,113 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or over. MetS was defined according to the joint interim statement. MetS was diagnosed when a subject had three or more of the following components: 1) central obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm for men, ≥80 cm in for women); 2) elevated blood pressure (≥130/85 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication); 3) hypertriglyceridemia (≥1.7 mmol/L); 4) low HDL cholesterol (< 1.0 mmol/L for men, < 1.3 mmol/L for women); and 5) elevated fasting plasma glucose (≥5.55 mmol/L or current use of antidiabetic medication). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The age- and multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using a logistic regression model. Results: Elevated depressive symptoms were observed in 4.3% of male and 6.3% of female participants. In men, the age-adjusted prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was significantly higher in subjects with MetS than in those without (7.1% versus 3.6%, p = 0.04). The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms rose progressively as the number of MetS components increased (3.5%, 3.6%, 5.8%, and 9.2% in male subjects with 0-1, 2, 3, and ≥4 components, respectively; p = 0.02 for trend). This association remained significant even after adjustment for age, marital status, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking habit, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. In women, on the other hand, there was no clear association between MetS and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: MetS was associated with elevated depressive symptoms in a general population of Japanese men.

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