Variations in health care outcomes and services potentially indicate resource allocation inefficiency. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine variations in mortality and hospitalization cases among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) care from medical facilities located in 13 secondary medical care areas (SMAs) of Fukuoka prefecture, Japan. The research was designed as a retrospective, cross-sectional study using insurance claims data. The subjects of the study were older patients (over 65 years old) insured by the Fukuoka prefecture's Latter-Stage Elderly Healthcare Insurance. Using an electronic claims database, we identified patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who had received HD care from April 1, 2017 to March 31, 2018. The CKD status was identified using International Classification of Disease, 10th revision code, and HD maintenance status was ascertained using specific insurance procedure codes. A total of 5,243 patients met our inclusion criteria and their records were subsequently reviewed. About 73% (n = 3,809) of patients had admission records during the period studied. Thus, the data regarding hospital length of stay (LOS) and admission costs were analyzed separately. Significant differences in terms of increased risks in hospitalization were evident in a number of SMAs. An increase in mortality risk due to heart failure and malignancy was observed in two separate SMAs. Also, analyzed LOS, total hospitalization cost, and cost per day according to SMAs showed statistically significant variations. The findings highlight the magnitude of the burden of CKD and ESRD in the community. The high prevalence of ESRD, associated mortality, and hospitalized HD patients signal the need for clinicians to assume broader roles in measures against chronic kidney disease through involvement in community awareness programs. To improve patient outcomes, improvement of regional health care provision, the level of medical care, and the development of existing human resources are needed.