Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by abnormalities in the gene PLP1. Most females harboring heterozygous PLP1 abnormalities are basically asymptomatic. However, as a result of abnormal patterns of X-chromosome inactivation, it is possible for some female carriers to be symptomatic. Whole-exome sequencing of a female patient with unknown spastic paraplegia was performed to obtain a molecular diagnosis. As a result, a de novo heterozygous single-nucleotide deletion in PLP1 [NM_000533.5(PLP1_v001):c.783del; p.Thr262Leufs*20] was identified. RNA sequencing was performed in a patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell line, confirming mono-allelic expression of the mutated allele and abnormal inactivation of the wild-type allele. The patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell line was then treated with VX680 or 5azadC, which resulted in restored expression of the wild-type allele. These two agents thus have the potential to reverse inappropriately-skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome.
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