Purpose: To compare the safety of emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) with surgery for acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the perioperative records of 111 patients who underwent emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis under the care of the Department of Digestive Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, between January 2010 and April 2014. Patients were divided into the AAC group (27 patients) and the ACC group (84 patients), and their perioperative outcomes were compared. Results: Patients in the AAC group had significantly higher disease severity and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores (p = 0.001 and 0.037, respectively), lower blood hemoglobin and albumin concentrations (p = 0.0005 and 0.017, respectively), and lower hematocrit and platelet count (p < 0.0001 and 0.040, respectively) than those in the ACC group. When we compared perioperative outcomes, we also found that patients in the AAC group were more likely to have received a blood transfusion (p = 0.002) and to have required conversion to open surgery (p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in morbidity, mortality or length of hospital stay. Conclusions: Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe in acute acalculous as well as acute calculous cholecystitis.
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