Chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) is a systemic disorder that affects multiple organs and systems and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD, especially those receiving dialysis therapy. CKD–MBD is highly prevalent in CKD patients, and its treatment is gaining attention from healthcare providers who manage these patients. Additional important pathologies often observed in CKD patients are chronic inflammation and malnutrition/protein-energy wasting (PEW). These two pathologies coexist to form a vicious cycle that accelerates the progression of various other pathologies in CKD patients. This concept is integrated into the term “malnutrition–inflammation–atherosclerosis syndrome” or “malnutrition–inflammation complex syndrome (MICS)”. Recent basic and clinical studies have shown that CKD–MBD directly induces inflammation as well as malnutrition/PEW. Indeed, higher circulating levels of inorganic phosphate, fibroblast growth factor 23, parathyroid hormone, and calciprotein particles, as markers for critical components and effectors of CKD–MBD, were shown to directly induce inflammatory responses, thereby leading to malnutrition/PEW, cardiovascular diseases, and clinically relevant complications. In this short review, we discuss the close interplay between CKD–MBD and MICS and emphasize the significance of simultaneous control of these two seemingly distinct pathologies in patients with CKD, especially those receiving dialysis therapy, for better management of the CKD/hemodialysis population.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physiology (medical)