Emission characteristics of refractory black carbon aerosols from fresh biomass burning

A perspective from laboratory experiments

Xiaole Pan, Yugo Kanaya, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, Satoshi Inomata, Yuichi Komazaki, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Zhe Wang, Itsushi Uno, Zifa Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The emission characteristics of refractory black carbon (rBC) from biomass burning are essential information for numerical simulations of regional pollution and climate effects.We conducted combustion experiments in the laboratory to investigate the emission ratio and mixing state of rBC from the burning of wheat straw and rapeseed plants, which are the main crops cultivated in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was used to measure rBC-containing particles at high temporal resolution and with high accuracy. The combustion state of each burning case was indicated by the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), which is calculated using the integrated enhancement of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations relative to their background values. The mass size distribution of the rBC particles showed a lognormal shape with a mode mass equivalent diameter (MED) of 189 nm (ranging from 152 to 215 nm), assuming an rBC density of 1.8 g cm-3. rBC particles less than 80 nm in size (the lower detection limit of the SP2) accounted for ∼5% of the total rBC mass, on average. The emission ratios, which are expressed as ΔrBC =ΔCO (Δ indicates the difference between the observed and background values), displayed a significant positive correlation with the MCE values and varied between 1.8 and 34 ngm-3 ppbv-1. Multi-peak fitting analysis of the delay time (Δt, or the time of occurrence of the scattering peak minus that of the incandescence peak) distribution showed that rBC-containing particles with rBC MED = 200±10 nm displayed two peaks at Δt = 1.7 μs and Δt = 3.2 μs, which could be attributed to the contributions from both flaming and smoldering combustion in each burning case. Both the Δt values and the shell / core ratios of the rBC-containing particles clearly increased as the MCE decreased from 0.98 (smoldering-dominant combustion) to 0.86 (flaming-dominant combustion), implying the great importance of the rapid condensation of semi-volatile organics. This laboratory study found that the mixing state of rBC particles from biomass burning strongly depends on its combustion processes, and overall MCE should be taken carefully into consideration while the climate effect of rBC particles from open biomass burning is simulated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13001-13016
Number of pages16
JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume17
Issue number21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 6 2017

Fingerprint

black carbon
biomass burning
aerosol
combustion
climate effect
laboratory experiment
pollution effect
particle
photometer
soot
carbon monoxide
straw
condensation
carbon dioxide
wheat
scattering
shell

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Emission characteristics of refractory black carbon aerosols from fresh biomass burning : A perspective from laboratory experiments. / Pan, Xiaole; Kanaya, Yugo; Taketani, Fumikazu; Miyakawa, Takuma; Inomata, Satoshi; Komazaki, Yuichi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Wang, Zhe; Uno, Itsushi; Wang, Zifa.

In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 17, No. 21, 06.11.2017, p. 13001-13016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pan, Xiaole ; Kanaya, Yugo ; Taketani, Fumikazu ; Miyakawa, Takuma ; Inomata, Satoshi ; Komazaki, Yuichi ; Tanimoto, Hiroshi ; Wang, Zhe ; Uno, Itsushi ; Wang, Zifa. / Emission characteristics of refractory black carbon aerosols from fresh biomass burning : A perspective from laboratory experiments. In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2017 ; Vol. 17, No. 21. pp. 13001-13016.
@article{dd3102e9aa794c72be4e2fc37e9bd712,
title = "Emission characteristics of refractory black carbon aerosols from fresh biomass burning: A perspective from laboratory experiments",
abstract = "The emission characteristics of refractory black carbon (rBC) from biomass burning are essential information for numerical simulations of regional pollution and climate effects.We conducted combustion experiments in the laboratory to investigate the emission ratio and mixing state of rBC from the burning of wheat straw and rapeseed plants, which are the main crops cultivated in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was used to measure rBC-containing particles at high temporal resolution and with high accuracy. The combustion state of each burning case was indicated by the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), which is calculated using the integrated enhancement of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations relative to their background values. The mass size distribution of the rBC particles showed a lognormal shape with a mode mass equivalent diameter (MED) of 189 nm (ranging from 152 to 215 nm), assuming an rBC density of 1.8 g cm-3. rBC particles less than 80 nm in size (the lower detection limit of the SP2) accounted for ∼5{\%} of the total rBC mass, on average. The emission ratios, which are expressed as ΔrBC =ΔCO (Δ indicates the difference between the observed and background values), displayed a significant positive correlation with the MCE values and varied between 1.8 and 34 ngm-3 ppbv-1. Multi-peak fitting analysis of the delay time (Δt, or the time of occurrence of the scattering peak minus that of the incandescence peak) distribution showed that rBC-containing particles with rBC MED = 200±10 nm displayed two peaks at Δt = 1.7 μs and Δt = 3.2 μs, which could be attributed to the contributions from both flaming and smoldering combustion in each burning case. Both the Δt values and the shell / core ratios of the rBC-containing particles clearly increased as the MCE decreased from 0.98 (smoldering-dominant combustion) to 0.86 (flaming-dominant combustion), implying the great importance of the rapid condensation of semi-volatile organics. This laboratory study found that the mixing state of rBC particles from biomass burning strongly depends on its combustion processes, and overall MCE should be taken carefully into consideration while the climate effect of rBC particles from open biomass burning is simulated.",
author = "Xiaole Pan and Yugo Kanaya and Fumikazu Taketani and Takuma Miyakawa and Satoshi Inomata and Yuichi Komazaki and Hiroshi Tanimoto and Zhe Wang and Itsushi Uno and Zifa Wang",
year = "2017",
month = "11",
day = "6",
doi = "10.5194/acp-17-13001-2017",
language = "English",
volume = "17",
pages = "13001--13016",
journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
issn = "1680-7316",
publisher = "European Geosciences Union",
number = "21",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Emission characteristics of refractory black carbon aerosols from fresh biomass burning

T2 - A perspective from laboratory experiments

AU - Pan, Xiaole

AU - Kanaya, Yugo

AU - Taketani, Fumikazu

AU - Miyakawa, Takuma

AU - Inomata, Satoshi

AU - Komazaki, Yuichi

AU - Tanimoto, Hiroshi

AU - Wang, Zhe

AU - Uno, Itsushi

AU - Wang, Zifa

PY - 2017/11/6

Y1 - 2017/11/6

N2 - The emission characteristics of refractory black carbon (rBC) from biomass burning are essential information for numerical simulations of regional pollution and climate effects.We conducted combustion experiments in the laboratory to investigate the emission ratio and mixing state of rBC from the burning of wheat straw and rapeseed plants, which are the main crops cultivated in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was used to measure rBC-containing particles at high temporal resolution and with high accuracy. The combustion state of each burning case was indicated by the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), which is calculated using the integrated enhancement of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations relative to their background values. The mass size distribution of the rBC particles showed a lognormal shape with a mode mass equivalent diameter (MED) of 189 nm (ranging from 152 to 215 nm), assuming an rBC density of 1.8 g cm-3. rBC particles less than 80 nm in size (the lower detection limit of the SP2) accounted for ∼5% of the total rBC mass, on average. The emission ratios, which are expressed as ΔrBC =ΔCO (Δ indicates the difference between the observed and background values), displayed a significant positive correlation with the MCE values and varied between 1.8 and 34 ngm-3 ppbv-1. Multi-peak fitting analysis of the delay time (Δt, or the time of occurrence of the scattering peak minus that of the incandescence peak) distribution showed that rBC-containing particles with rBC MED = 200±10 nm displayed two peaks at Δt = 1.7 μs and Δt = 3.2 μs, which could be attributed to the contributions from both flaming and smoldering combustion in each burning case. Both the Δt values and the shell / core ratios of the rBC-containing particles clearly increased as the MCE decreased from 0.98 (smoldering-dominant combustion) to 0.86 (flaming-dominant combustion), implying the great importance of the rapid condensation of semi-volatile organics. This laboratory study found that the mixing state of rBC particles from biomass burning strongly depends on its combustion processes, and overall MCE should be taken carefully into consideration while the climate effect of rBC particles from open biomass burning is simulated.

AB - The emission characteristics of refractory black carbon (rBC) from biomass burning are essential information for numerical simulations of regional pollution and climate effects.We conducted combustion experiments in the laboratory to investigate the emission ratio and mixing state of rBC from the burning of wheat straw and rapeseed plants, which are the main crops cultivated in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was used to measure rBC-containing particles at high temporal resolution and with high accuracy. The combustion state of each burning case was indicated by the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), which is calculated using the integrated enhancement of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations relative to their background values. The mass size distribution of the rBC particles showed a lognormal shape with a mode mass equivalent diameter (MED) of 189 nm (ranging from 152 to 215 nm), assuming an rBC density of 1.8 g cm-3. rBC particles less than 80 nm in size (the lower detection limit of the SP2) accounted for ∼5% of the total rBC mass, on average. The emission ratios, which are expressed as ΔrBC =ΔCO (Δ indicates the difference between the observed and background values), displayed a significant positive correlation with the MCE values and varied between 1.8 and 34 ngm-3 ppbv-1. Multi-peak fitting analysis of the delay time (Δt, or the time of occurrence of the scattering peak minus that of the incandescence peak) distribution showed that rBC-containing particles with rBC MED = 200±10 nm displayed two peaks at Δt = 1.7 μs and Δt = 3.2 μs, which could be attributed to the contributions from both flaming and smoldering combustion in each burning case. Both the Δt values and the shell / core ratios of the rBC-containing particles clearly increased as the MCE decreased from 0.98 (smoldering-dominant combustion) to 0.86 (flaming-dominant combustion), implying the great importance of the rapid condensation of semi-volatile organics. This laboratory study found that the mixing state of rBC particles from biomass burning strongly depends on its combustion processes, and overall MCE should be taken carefully into consideration while the climate effect of rBC particles from open biomass burning is simulated.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85032953521&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85032953521&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.5194/acp-17-13001-2017

DO - 10.5194/acp-17-13001-2017

M3 - Article

VL - 17

SP - 13001

EP - 13016

JO - Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

JF - Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

SN - 1680-7316

IS - 21

ER -