The percentage of patients with atypical extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis has been increasing. Among extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases, tuberculosis of the pancreas and peripancreatic lymph nodes is a rare clinical entity. Here, we present a case of peripancreatic tuberculous lymphadenitis diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) both cytologically and microbiologically. A 23-year-old man had a 1-week history of epigastralgia and low-grade fever. Subsequently, he was found to have an abnormality on abdominal ultrasound. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a solitary mass consisting of multiple cystic components with rim enhancement in the peripancreatic portion contiguous to the gall bladder. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The cytological examination revealed epithelioid cells with caseous necrosis, indicating tuberculosis. The aspirated fluid was positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antituberculosis therapy with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide was started based on the PCR and cytology results, and a good response to the treatment was noted. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology with PCR analysis is very useful for the diagnosis of peripancreatic tuberculosis.
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