Background and study aims: Brunner's gland hamartomas are uncommon duodenal submucosal tumors. We aim to describe their morphological characteristics, with particular attention to the endosonographic features. Patients and methods: We reviewed the radiological, endoscopic, endosonographic, and histological findings from six Brunner's gland hamartomas which were completely removed by endoscopic resection. Results: The lesions appeared as broad-based, sessile, or pedunculated submucosal tumors, measuring 0.7 to 2 cm in maximal diameter. Three lesions contained tiny dimple-like depressions on the surface; in one lesion these were only recognized following the use of an endoscopic dye-spraying technique. All the lesions could be safely removed by endoscopic resection after endosonographic confirmation of the layer origin within the submucosa. The internal echo structure of the tumors appeared to be solid echogenic in two, simple cystic in two, and multicystic in the remaining two lesions. In three lesions with an indistinct boundary, some stromal proliferation and solid Brunner's glands were recognized in an area extending from the mucosa to the submucosa. These endosonographic features corresponded to histological findings comprising stromal proliferation and various degrees of solid and cystic glandular Brunner's glands. Conclusions: Brunner's gland hamartoma is characterized endosonographically by a heterogeneous solid and/or cystic mass within the submucosa.
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