The present research focused on evaluating the role of waste fishbone hydroxyapatite (FB-HAP) in stabilizing heavy metals, particularly Pb and Zn, in incineration fly ash (IFA). Bones were collected from various fish species and processed for batch experiments. A commercial apatite product (Apatite II™) was also obtained for a comparative analysis. The experiments were performed at fishbone/fly ash ratios of 0.0 (control group) and 1:10 (by weight), settling times of 6, 12, 24, and 672 h (28 days), and W/S ratios of 1.0 and 1.5 mL/g. The highest Pb removal efficiency reached 86.39% at 28 days settling periods, when the FB-HAP dose was only 10% at W/S 1.5 mL/g. FB-HAP was found noticeably more effective (approximately 1.5 to 2 times) than Apatite II™, particularly at shorter settling periods. Stabilization of Zn was efficient at longer settling period (28 days) using FB-HAP. The highest stabilization rate of Zn was 62.67% at W/S 1.0 mL/g. The results indicated that settling time and W/S ratio were the most important factors to enhance the stabilization of Pb and Zn in IFA. Utilization of waste fishbone is expected to be a low-cost and eco-friendly technology.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Waste Management and Disposal